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In 2014, the Arab Foresight Group convened three sessions of future studies experts from a variety of organizations who evaluated data and identified three potential futures that could unfold in the Arab world in 2025. These experts indicated megatrends (relative certainties that will remain constant over the next decade) and six game-changers or areas in which policymakers will influence the course of events owing to their choices. The three futures outlined take into account the megatrends, with the experts going a step further to develop ways that policymakers can respond.
The Middle East is currently in one of its most dramatic periods of turbulence since the post-World War I emergence of the modern state system in that region. The intense unrest in the Middle East has created new conflicts, but it has also brought some of the regional status quo powers into a greater level of cooperation to help address these problems. The Arab states aligned with the United States currently are facing a number of particularly serious regional policy problems and remains an incubator of radicalism and terrorism.
In this Letort Paper, a British cyber policy researcher and German computer security specialist provide an overview of four different national approaches to cyber defense: Norway, Estonia, Germany, and Sweden. While providing a useful guide for engagement with the relevant governmental and other organizations in each of these countries, the Paper also compares and contrasts the advantages and drawbacks of each national approach. The wide range of organizational approaches to reaching a “best fit” template for successful cyber defense raises the possibility that other nations may have developed approaches that could be usefully adopted in a U.S. context.
This working paper analyzes the frequency and severity of terrorism and its effect on government revenue and expenditure using data from 153 countries from the period 1970–2013. The empirical analysis conducted focuses on terrorism’s impact on tax revenue and military spending as a share of gross domestic product. When discussing aspects such as estimation models, the paper can get quite technical, but overall it provides a new way to view the economic consequences of terrorism.
In the summer of 2014, Russia forcibly annexed Crimea from Ukraine and then actively supported ethnic Russian separatists in an on-going irredentist bid in Eastern Ukraine. This aggressive policy threatens to challenge NATO and the United States in its support of Ukraine and other nations of Eastern Europe. From this changing strategic environment, three central questions emerge: (1) What is the Russian strategy in their periphery? (2) What is the appropriate U.S. response? (3) What are the implications for U.S. land power? The Russian Strategic Environment: Vladimir Putin’s grand strategy relies on a complex mix of diplomatic, informational, military, and economic factors to preserve and expand Russian global power.
In the Senate version of the Benghazi investigation, the committee focused primarily on the analysis by and the actions of the intelligence community leading up to, during, and immediately following the attacks. The committee conducted hearings, briefings, and meetings with representatives from multiple agencies, reviewed thousands of intelligence reports and internal documents, and viewed surveillance videos. The results were 14 findings of fact, with corresponding recommendations. Majority and minority members of the committee each presented their own analysis. Most of the criticism by both groups focused on the “talking points” provided by the CIA and the failure to bring the perpetrators to justice.
U.S. Marines in Afghanistan, 2001-2009: Anthology and Annotated Bibliography presents a collection of 38 articles, interviews, and speeches describing many aspects of the U.S. Marine Corps’ participation in Operation Enduring Freedom from 2001 to 2009. The accompanying annotated bibliography provides a detailed look at selected sources that currently exist until new scholarship and archival materials become available.
This section of the WWW Virtual Library system was created, and is edited and maintained, by Wayne A.Selcher, Ph. D., Professor of International Studies Emeritus, Department of Political Science, Elizabethtown College, Elizabethtown, PA, U.S.A.