This resource is adapted from the Indiana University Bloomington Library DIY project created by Andrea Baer and Julia Davis, which was adapted from the original Portland State University Library DIY project created by Meredith Farkas, Amy Hofer, Lisa Molinelli, and Kimberly Willson-St. Clair. Thank you to all for sharing their content, which may be reused and adapted under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike license.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 4.0 International License.
Your search strategies will depend partly on the research tools you use. Search engines like Google tend to be less picky about your terms. However, Google search results also usually require more careful evaluation of source credibility, since it includes a larger number of sources from a wider range of places.
Library databases allow for advanced searching and include high-quality content. They often, however, are more challenging to search than Google. These database search tips will help:
Keywords are search terms that express the essence of your topic. They are crucial to an effective search, especially in library databases.
Video on Choosing & Using Keywords (John M. Pfau Library)
1. Be concise.
Begin with only 2-3 essential terms, and avoid long phrases. The more terms you enter the fewer results you’ll get. (For example, a search for environmental consequences of fracking may yield 0 results, while fracking environment yields over 2,000.)
2. Use synonyms and related terms.
If your first term doesn’t work, try a synonym. You may have to try out several related search terms to find the types of resources you're looking for. (Example: environment INSTEAD OF environmental consequences)
3. Identify keywords with background research.
To identify useful keywords, do some quick background research. Note terms that are often used to discuss the topic. (Reference sources like Wikipedia or the library databases Credo Reference and Britannica Academic offer overviews of many topics. Of course, remember to evaluate information in Wikipedia with particular care since almost anyone can edit it.)
4. Identify keywords from search results.
Do a quick database search and view the search results page to identify relevant terms.
5. Combine search terms.
In most databases you can refine results using the search functions AND, OR, and NOT.
Keep it simple! Start by typing the name of a relevant thing, place, or concept:
Add relevant words if you don't see what you want after doing a simple search:
It may take several attempts to find the right words to describe your topic.
Try other words to describe what you're looking for:
Use only the important words. Too many words will limit your results:
Use quotation marks to search for an exact phrase to narrow results.
Example: A search for [medical error] without quotations retrieves results with those two words anywhere in the document. ["Medical error"] finds results only for that exact phrase.
Use an asterisk (*) to search for all endings to a word. (This works in most databases and in Google.)
Example: [mexic*] searches for Mexico, Mexican, and Mexicans
Start Small! Begin with just one or a few search terms. Add additional terms if you have too many results.
Use good search terms. Use terms that are more specific. Do not use OR between terms that mean different things (for example, do not search [women OR salary]
Too few search terms. If you only have one general term in the search box, consider adding another word that expressed what aspect of that term you are interested in.
Use limiters. Limiters (such as date, format, language of publication) give you more targeted results.
Topic is too broad. Narrow the scope of your search. Think about the different aspects of your topic you will address and search for them separately. Then synthesize the information. You may need to narrow your topic if it is too large to cover in a short paper.
Too Few Results
Is this the best database for your topic? If you are using a subject-specific database (History, Education, etc.), try Library Search or a multidisciplinary database like Academic Search Complete or a specialized search engine like Google Scholar. Be prepared to try several different databases. If you need a subject-specific database, look at the recommended History databases.
Use good search terms. Check spelling and brainstorm synonyms or related terms. You can use OR between synonyms (for example: salary OR pay OR compensation).
Too many search terms. If you have three or more search terms, try removing one to see if your results improve.
Too many limiters. Use only limiters that are absolutely necessary.
Your topic is too narrow. What is the broader theme of your topic? Break your topic down and search for different parts separately. For example, if you are comparing primary school education in China and Spain, search for articles about each country separately. Then synthesize the information you find.